Substations are the most important part of any power grid. Even just charging the phone, we use a charger that decreases the current value of our outlet to the one that needs the lithium battery for charging. Exactly the same principle is worked for hundreds, if not thousands of transformer substations of all capacities and sizes. Together, they form the basis of the country’s electrical system along with direct energy manufacturers (hydroelectric power stations, nuclear power plants, Tes and others), as well as a variety of transmission lines.
To provide electricity to small objects, CTP – complete transformer substations are used. They are made by a monolithic installation, easily mounted on the spot, requiring only proper connection and maintenance. In case of need, such a substation can be relatively quickly dismantled (due to bolted connections) and transported to another place. Due to this “mobility”, many still Soviet CTPs and now, having undergone repairs and modernization, are safely used in different parts of our country. The heart of CTP is a transformer installation. The most popular type of transformers in the Ukrainian market is still oil. Others, based on the use of non -combustible dielectrics and filled with synthetic mixtures, only conquer consumer love. These installations are less fire hazard, but in other characteristics there are practically no special advantages. Most transformer attitudes still have a working height of several thousand meters above sea level.
Substation design is a complex and long -term process, including many stages and preliminary preparatory work. The project begins in obtaining a technical specifications. The development of the substation takes into account such documents as the development plan of the region’s energy network for 5 years, GOSTs of electrical equipment, as well as the technical conditions of the manufacturer (TU). If the substation is planned to be installed not in open areas, but in the existing room, then the project plans and the circuit for supplying electrical compensation to it are extremely important for the project. The substation located in open areas almost always have a protective fence of a security zone (about 3 meters), which protects not only from animals, but also from people (for example, playing children).
Now in Ukraine the design of substations is engaged in many enterprises, but not all of them have a full package of accompanying documents allowing design work in the industrial equipment industry.